Growth Hormone Deficiency

What Is Growth Hormone?

Growth hormone (GH) is a substance in the body that helps kids grow and develop in the as they should. It is made by the pituitary gland , located at the bottom of the brain.

What Is Growth Hormone Deficiency?

GH deficiency is when the body does not make enough growth hormone to allow a child to grow at a normal pace.

The two kinds of GH deficiency are:

  • Congenital GH deficiency is the kind that some babies are born with. They also can have problems with other hormones. Even though they're born with the condition, some babies look like they're growing normally until they are about 6 to 12 months old.
  • Acquired GH deficiency happens when the body stops making enough GH to grow normally. It can start at any time in childhood.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Growth Hormone Deficiency?

Doctors check kids' height during regular checkups. Over time, doctors can see how fast a child is growing. If a child is growing much slower than most other kids the same age, this is called growth failure.

One of the most visible signs of growth failure is a height that is much shorter than most other kids the same age. This is called short stature. But some kids can have growth failure even if they don't have short stature.

Other signs and symptoms of GH deficiency include:

  • looking much younger than other kids the same age
  • a high-pitched voice
  • very thin hair
  • teeth that come in late
  • slow or late puberty
  • in boys, a small penis

What Causes Growth Hormone Deficiency?

Often, doctors don't know why a child has GH deficiency. When a cause is found, it's often related to problems with the pituitary gland or with the brain around the pituitary gland. Brain tumors, head injuries, and radiation treatment to the brain also can cause GH deficiency.

How Is Growth Hormone Deficiency Diagnosed?

If your child has growth failure or short stature, even without any other signs or symptoms, your doctor might send you to a pediatric endocrinologist. This is a doctor who specializes in children's growth and hormones.

The endocrinologist will about your child's growth and will do a careful exam. The doctor will order some tests to look for GH deficiency, such as:

  • Blood tests. There are no easy tests to measure GH levels. This is because GH is not at the same level in the body all the time. It is produced in short bursts. This makes testing for it hard, because there is no way to know when the bursts will happen. With no simple way to look at the level of GH directly, doctors look at the levels of two proteins that work with GH:
      1. IGF-I, or insulin-like growth factor I
      2. IGFPB-3, or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3
  • Bone age X-rays. These are X-rays of one of your child's hands and wrists. An expert compares your child's X-rays with the X-rays of other children the same age, and gives the bones an age in years. If your child's bone age is much younger than their actual age, this might be a sign of GH deficiency.
  • GH stimulation test. This test is done when other tests suggest that your child might have GH deficiency. First, your child will be asked to not eat or drink for a certain number of hours, usually overnight. This is called a fast. The doctor will give your child a medicine that should make the body produce a burst of GH. A nurse will then draw blood at a few different times to check the levels of GH. Low GH levels confirm the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.
  • Brain MRI. This very detailed picture of the brain helps doctors see if there is a problem with the pituitary gland or the brain that might be causing GH deficiency.

How Is Growth Hormone Deficiency Treated?

Treatment for GH deficiency is a growth hormone shot every day. Parents learn how to give these shots at home so that there is no need to go to the doctor's office for them.

The endocrinologist will tell you how often your child should come in when treatment starts. At each visit, the doctor will check on your child's growth and may order blood tests to see how your child's body is responding to the medicine. The doctor will adjust the dose based on this response.

Tell the doctor if your child has any side effects. One of the most common side effects of growth hormone shots is headaches.

What Else Should I Know?

Growth hormone can increase the speed of growth in a child with growth hormone deficiency. Kids who start growth hormone treatment earlier are often able to catch up more than kids who start treatment later.

Many children with GH deficiency and no other medical problems who are treated with GH shots won't need the shots as adults. Most of them start making GH normally. Those who don't may continue to get GH shots into adulthood.

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