Section: Parents - posted in 2019

  • Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Mosquito-Borne Diseases What Are Mosquito-Borne Diseases? Mosquito-borne diseases are illnesses spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. They include: chikungunya dengue fever Eastern and Western equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis malaria St. Louis encephalitis West Nile virus yellow fever Zika virus Viruses cause most diseases spread to people by mosquitoes. Malaria is caused by a ...
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  • Tear-Duct Blockage

    Tear-Duct Blockage What Is a Tear-Duct Blockage? A tear duct is a small tube that drains tears from the eyes. Tears are made in glands under the eyelids. They wash over the eyes to keep them moist and clean. Then, they drain though the tear ducts. When a tear duct is blocked (a blockage), the tears can't drain. Many babies are born with a tear-duct blockage. Blocked tear ducts in babies usually clear up with little ...
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  • Congenital Cataracts

    Congenital Cataracts What Are Congenital Cataracts? A cataract is the clouding of the lens of an eye. Congenital means that it happens before birth or during a baby's first year of life. A baby with congenital cataracts has clouding in one or both eyes. What Happens if a Baby Has Congenital Cataracts? A baby with a cataract can't see well through the affected eye. This makes it hard for the brain and eyes to work ...
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  • Ptosis

    Ptosis What Is Ptosis? Ptosis (TOE-sis) is drooping of the upper eyelid. Sometimes it's a symptom of another medical condition, but it also can happen by itself. What Happens in Ptosis? Normally, eyelids open when the brain sends a signal to the eyelid-lifting muscles. This signal is carried by nerves. Then, muscles lift the eyelids. In ptosis, something goes wrong in this process, so one or both eyelids ...
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  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma What Is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a condition that damages the eye's optic nerve. It gets worse over time and leads to vision loss if not treated. The damage from glaucoma often is linked to a buildup of pressure inside the eye. Regular eye exams can help doctors find glaucoma (glau-KOH-muh) early and start treatment right away. What Happens in Glaucoma? Normally, a healthy eye makes clear fluid that ...
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  • Legius Syndrome

    Legius Syndrome What Is Legius Syndrome? Legius syndrome is a rare genetic condition. It is one in a group of conditions called RASopathies (raz-OP-uh-thees). These happen when there's a problem in the way cells in the body communicate. Legius syndrome (LEE-jus SIN-drome) can cause brown spots on the skin, freckles in the armpits, and learning problems. Kids with the condition can manage its symptoms with regular ...
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  • Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome

    Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome What Is Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome? Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic condition. It is one in a group of conditions called RASopathies (raz-OP-uh-thees). These happen when there's a problem in the way cells communicate in one of the body's pathways. Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (kar-dee-oh-fay-show-kyoo-TAY-nee-iss SIN-drome) causes a group of problems at birth. These ...
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  • Costello Syndrome

    Costello Syndrome What Is Costello Syndrome? Costello syndrome is a very rare genetic condition. It happens when there's a change (mutation) in a gene called the HRAS gene. This happens in a child's DNA before birth. Costello syndrome causes problems that affect the heart, muscles, bones, skin, brain, and spinal cord. There's no cure for the condition, but doctors can help kids manage most symptoms. What Are the ...
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  • RASopathies

    RASopathies What Are RASopathies? RASopathies are a group of genetic conditions. They're called RASopathies (raz-OP-uh-thees) because they're caused by problems in the RAS pathway, which is one way cells in the body communicate. The individual RASopathies are rare, but as a group: They're among the most common genetic conditions. They cause most genetic-related learning and development problems. What Are the ...
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  • VP Shunts

    VP Shunts What Is a VP Shunt? A ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a thin plastic tube that helps drain extra cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain. CSF is the saltwater that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord. Why Are VP Shunts Placed? VP shunts are placed to treat hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus (hi-droh-SEF-eh-less) happens when CSF does not drain out of the hollow spaces inside the brain ...
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